Sources of african history pdf

Masquerade, metalwork, sculpture, architecture, fiber art, and dance are important art forms across Africa and may be included in the study of African art. African art includes ancient art, Muslim art of North and West Africa, the Christian art of East Africa, and the ritualistic art of these and other regions. Many West African figures are used in religious rituals and are often coated with materials placed on them for ceremonial offerings. In Central Africa, however, the main distinguishing characteristics include heart-shaped faces that are curved inward and display patterns sources of african history pdf circles and dots.

East Africans are known for Tinga Tinga paintings and Makonde sculptures. Southern Africa’s oldest known clay figures date from 400 to 600¬†AD and have cylindrical heads with a mixture of human and animal features. Artistic creativity or Expressive individualism: In Western African art in particular, there is a widespread emphasis on expressive individualism while simultaneously being influenced by the work of predecessors. An example would be Dan artistry as well as its presence in the Western African diaspora.

Emphasis on the human figure: The human figure has always been the primary subject matter for most African art, and this emphasis even influenced certain European traditions. The human figure may symbolize the living or the dead, may reference chiefs, dancers, or various trades such as drummers or hunters, or even may be an anthropomorphic representation of a god or have other votive function. Another common theme is the inter-morphosis of human and animal. Visual abstraction: African artworks tend to favor visual abstraction over naturalistic representation. This is because many African artworks generalize stylistic norms. Ancient Egyptian art, also usually thought of as naturalistically depictive, makes use of highly abstracted and regimented visual canons, especially in painting, as well as the use of different colors to represent the qualities and characteristics of an individual being depicted. Emphasis on sculpture: African artists tend to favor three-dimensional artworks over two-dimensional works.

Even many African paintings or cloth works were meant to be experienced three-dimensionally. Distinct from the static form of traditional Western sculpture African art displays animation, a readiness to move. Emphasis on performance art: An extension of the utilitarianism and three-dimensionality of traditional African art is the fact that much of it is crafted for use in performance contexts, rather than in static ones. Most societies in Africa have names for their masks, but this single name incorporates not only the sculpture, but also the meanings of the mask, the dance associated with it, and the spirits that reside within.


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