Motivation in the classroom pdf

Motivation is also one’s direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior. A motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way, or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior. According to Maehr and Meyer, “Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are. Motivation motivation in the classroom pdf a desire to perform an action is usually defined as having two parts, directional such as directed towards a positive stimulus or away from a negative one, as well as the activated “seeking phase” and consummatory “liking phase”.

Furthermore, depletion or inhibition of dopamine in neurons of the nucleus accumbens decreases appetitive but not consummatory behavior. Dopamine is further implicated in motivation as administration of amphetamine increased the break point in a progressive ratio self-reinforcement schedule. Motivation can be conceived of as a cycle in which thoughts influence behaviors, behaviors drive performance, performance affects thoughts, and the cycle begins again. Each stage of the cycle is composed of many dimensions including attitudes, beliefs, intentions, effort, and withdrawal which can all affect the motivation that an individual experiences.

The natural system assumes that people have higher order needs, which contrasts with the rational theory that suggests people dislike work and only respond to rewards and punishment. Physiological needs are the lowest and most important level. These fundamental requirements include food, rest, shelter, and exercise. However, if management makes arbitrary or biased employment decisions, then an employee’s safety needs are unfulfilled.

The next set of needs is social, which refers to the desire for acceptance, affiliation, reciprocal friendships and love. As such, the natural system of management assumes that close-knit work teams are productive. Accordingly, if an employee’s social needs are unmet, then he will act disobediently. There are two types of egoistic needs, the second-highest order of needs. The first type refers to one’s self-esteem, which encompasses self-confidence, independence, achievement, competence, and knowledge.

The second type of needs deals with reputation, status, recognition, and respect from colleagues. Egoistic needs are much more difficult to satisfy. The highest order of needs is for self-fulfillment, including recognition of one’s full potential, areas for self-improvement, and the opportunity for creativity. This differs from the rational system, which assumes that people prefer routine and security to creativity. Unlike the rational management system, which assumes that humans don’t care about these higher order needs, the natural system is based on these needs as a means for motivation. To successfully manage and motivate employees, the natural system posits that being part of a group is necessary.


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