Humayun ahmed all books pdf free download

Book Name: Octopasher Chokh By Muhammed Zafar Humayun ahmed all books pdf free download Book Category :   Science Fiction   Book Writer:  Md. This article is about the Mughal emperor. At the time of his death in 1556, the Mughal Empire spanned almost one million square kilometres. In December 1530, Humayun succeeded his father to the throne of Farghana as ruler of the Mughal territories in the Indian subcontinent.

At the age of 23, Humayun was an inexperienced ruler when he came to power. Mirza was to become a bitter rival of Humayun. 15 years later with Safavid aid. Humayun’s return from Persia was accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen and signalled an important change in Mughal court culture. India dating from the time of Humayun. Timurids followed the example of Genghis and did not leave an entire kingdom to the eldest son.

While Genghis Khan’s Empire had been peacefully divided between his sons upon his death, almost every Chinggisid succession since had resulted in fratricide. Upon Babur’s death, Humayun’s territories were the least secure. Humayun as the rightful ruler. Indeed, earlier, when Babur had become ill, some of the nobles had tried to install his uncle, Mahdi Khwaja, as ruler. Although this attempt failed, it was a sign of problems to come. The Emperor commenced construction of a tomb for his brother in 1538, but this was not yet finished when Humayun was forced to flee to Persia.

Sher Shah destroyed the structure and no further work was done on it after Humayun’s restoration. Humayun’s first campaign was to confront Sher Shah Suri. Halfway through this offensive Humayun had to abandon it and concentrate on Gujarat, where a threat from Ahmed Shah had to be met. Bahadur’s Gujarat had acquired them through a series of contracts drawn up with the Portuguese, allowing the Portuguese to establish a strategic foothold in north western India. In 1535 Humayun was made aware that the Sultan of Gujarat was planning an assault on the Mughal territories with Portuguese aid. Humayun gathered an army and marched on Bahadur.

However, instead of pressing his attack, Humayun ceased the campaign and consolidated his newly conquered territory. Sultan Bahadur, meanwhile escaped and took up refuge with the Portuguese. He began to gather his army together hoping for a rapid and decisive siege of the Mughal capital. Upon hearing this alarming news, Humayun quickly marched his troops back to Agra allowing Bahadur to easily regain control of the territories Humayun had recently taken. In February 1537, however, Bahadur was killed when a botched plan to kidnap the Portuguese viceroy ended in a fire-fight that the Sultan lost. Sher Shah’s son, in order to protect his troops from an attack from the rear. The stores of grain at Gauri, the largest in the empire, were emptied, and Humayun arrived to see corpses littering the roads.

The vast wealth of Bengal was depleted and brought East, giving Sher Shah a substantial war chest. Sher Shah withdrew to the east, but Humayun did not follow: instead he “shut himself up for a considerable time in his Harem, and indulged himself in every kind of luxury. Hindal, Humayun’s 19-year-old brother, had agreed to aid him in this battle and protect the rear from attack, but he abandoned his position and withdrew to Agra, where he decreed himself acting emperor. Punjab, ostensibly to aid Humayun. However, his return home had treacherous motives as he intended to stake a claim for Humayun’s apparently collapsing empire. Kamran would create once Humayun was deposed. This was to become an entrenched battle in which both sides spent a lot of time digging themselves into positions.

The major part of the Mughal army, the artillery, was now immobile, and Humayun decided to engage in some diplomacy using Muhammad Aziz as ambassador. Humayun agreed to allow Sher Shah to rule over Bengal and Bihar, but only as provinces granted to him by his Emperor, Humayun, falling short of outright sovereignty. The two rulers also struck a bargain in order to save face: Humayun’s troops would charge those of Sher Shah whose forces then retreat in feigned fear. Thus honour would, supposedly, be satisfied. Once the Army of Humayun had made its charge and Sher Shah’s troops made their agreed-upon retreat, the Mughal troops relaxed their defensive preparations and returned to their entrenchments without posting a proper guard. Observing the Mughals’ vulnerability, Sher Shah reneged on his earlier agreement.


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