An introduction to fluid dynamics middleman pdf

A mesh sensitivity analysis is performed and the CFD model is validated against experimental results on heat transfer with conventional and supercritical fluids. The numerical results show that the static mixer has an introduction to fluid dynamics middleman pdf thermal efficiency more than three times higher than that of a conventional empty pipe heat exchanger with similar heat transfer area.

Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. This final criterion differentiates ethnic conflict from other forms of struggle. In a multi-ethnic society where freedom of speech is protected, ethnic conflict can be an everyday feature of plural democracies. For example, ethnic conflict might be a non-violent struggle for resources divided among ethnic groups. However, the subject of the confrontation must be either directly or symbolically linked with an ethnic group. In healthy multi-ethnic democracies, these conflicts are usually institutionalized and “channeled through parliaments, assemblies and bureaucracies or through non-violent demonstrations and strikes.

While democratic countries cannot always prevent ethnic conflict flaring up into violence, institutionalized ethnic conflict does ensure that ethnic groups can articulate their demands in a peaceful manner, which reduces the likelihood of violence. On the other hand, in authoritarian systems, ethnic minorities are often unable to express their grievances. Grievances are instead allowed to fester which might lead to long phases of ethnic silence followed by a violent outburst. Therefore, ethnic peace is an absence of violence, not an absence of conflict.

Another consequence is that violent ethnic rebellions often result in political rights for previously marginalized groups. Recently, several political scientists have argued for either top-down or bottom-up explanations for ethnic conflict. Explanations generally fall into one of three schools of thought: primordialist, instrumentalist, and constructivist. More recent scholarship draws on all three schools. Proponents of primordialist accounts argue that “thnic groups and nationalities exist because there are traditions of belief and action towards primordial objects such as biological features and especially territorial location”.

Primordialist accounts rely on strong ties of kinship among members of ethnic groups. In time and through repeated conflict, essential ties to one’s ethnicity will coalesce and will interfere with ties to civil society. Ethnic groups will consequently always threaten the survival of civil governments but not the existence of nations formed by one ethnic group. Thus, when considered through a primordial lens, ethnic conflict in multi-ethnic society is inevitable.

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